## Description

1. The ﬁnal essay of a course is due. As it is often the case, there is a minimum number of pages to be handed in, with text formatted at 72-80 columns. That is, a line break must occur between columns 72 and 80, inclusive, unless there is no blank space in which to break the line, in which case lines shorter than 72 columns are allowed. For example, consider a small example in which text must be formatted to between 10-15 columns:

123456789012345

The quick red ..1 fox is ..2 exhausted ..3

Observe that the line break in line (2) is at a length shorter than 10 characters since placing the word exhausted in line (2) would exceed 15 columns. A student wishes to reduce the amount of writing needed to meet the minimum number of pages. She is writing a program that maximizes the number of lines used to format a given text, that is to maximize the number of pages when the ﬁnal essay is printed. Give an algorithm for this and prove its correctness. [10 points]

2. This problem is about choosing line breaks to format a paragraph. Tim Fowl is a student who believes that the more lines that end with the letter R the higher his marks will be. Suppose that the paragraph has words of lengths l1,l2,…,ln in that order. Each pair of consecutive words must be separated by a blank, and a blank has length 1. Just as in the previous question line breaks must appear between column 72 and 80 unless including the next word would exceed 80 columns. Devise an algorithm that maximizes the number of lines ﬁnishing in the letter R, while formatting acording to the 72-80 column speciﬁcation. For example, here are two diﬀerent formatting choices:

I propose to consider the question, do you want to super size that, sir. This should begin with definitions of the meaning of the terms super and size.

I propose to consider the question, do you want to super size that, sir. This should begin with definitions of the meaning of the terms super and size.

Give an eﬃcient algorithm to format the text in a way that maximizes the number of lines ﬁnishing with the letter R. [10 points]

3. You are given two strings X = x1 …xn and Y = y1 …ym, over the alphabet Σ. Each character has an associated gain G(c). Give an algorithm that ﬁnds the common subsequence of X and Y which maximizes the overall gain, i.e. the sum of the gains of the individual characters in the common subsequence chosen. [10 points]

1

4. In class we saw an algorithm for ﬁnding the shortest path between two vertices u and v in a weighted graph. Consider a delivery person which gets paid by the mile and hence wishes to ﬁnd the most circuitous route to a destination that does not repeat vertices or edges. The decision version of this problem is “does there exist a path between u and v whose length is at least L”. Show that the decision version of this problem is NP-complete. [10 points]

5. This question is inspired by UW policies on exam scheduling, in particular, the rule that the university will “strive to schedule ﬁnal exams with no student having two exams in a row…,” among other constraints. To appreciate the diﬃculty of this task, we will look at one (simpliﬁed) abstraction of the problem. Speciﬁcally, we only have one classroom (!), and we want to schedule n classes c1 …cn into n diﬀerent time slots 1…n. The schedule can be speciﬁed by a one-to-one mapping f : {c1 …cn} → {1…n}. We are given a list of ` students, and for the j-th student, we are given a list Sj of the classes that he/she takes. We want to ensure that no two classes in Sj are assigned to two consecutive time slots. The precise statement of this problem is thus the following: Input: a set of elements c1 …cn, and a collection of subsets S1 …S` ⊆{c1 …cn}. Output: “yes” iﬀ there exists a one-to-one mapping f : {c1 …cn}→{1,…,n} such that for every j and for every x,y ∈ Sj, we have f(y) 6= f(x) + 1 and f(y) 6= f(x)−1. Prove that this problem is NP-complete. [10 points] Hint: Reduce from the Hamiltonian-Path problem (a variant of the Hamiltonian-Cycle problem where we are to decide the existence of a path that visits all vertices exactly once in a given undirected graph). You may assume that Hamiltonian-Path is NP-complete.

6. Consider the interval scheduling problem we saw in class, where we wish to schedule as many disjoint activities as possible from a set of overlapping activities. An example of this would be a movie critic during the Toronto International Film Festival (TIFF) wishing to attend as many movies as possible with the proviso that there can be no two overlapping shows, i.e. the movie critic can attend at most one movie at any given time. Suppose now that the movie critic has personal preferences for each movie and now wishes to maximize the sum of the preferences over the movies watched. More formally, we have a set of activities A = {a1,a2,…,an}, where each activity ai has an associated start time si, a ﬁnishing time fi and a preference pi. The goal is to ﬁnd a subset S of nonoverlapping activities such that X i∈S pi is maximized.

(a) Show with an example that the greedy method does not work. [5 points] (b) Give a dynamic programming algorithm for this problem. [10 points]

7. Consider now a movie critic which is attending the Movies with Sequels Film Festival, which showcases movies and their sequels. The showings could be, for example, Superman I..IV, Star Wars I..VI, Spider-Man 1-3, Star Trek I-VI, etc. Movies in a single series are shown with variable size breaks in between. For example Spider-Man 1 is on Tuesday from 9-11am, Spider-Man 2 also on Tuesday from 1-3pm and Spider-Man 3 on Wednesday from 9:30-11:30am. The critic in this case has no preferences as all sequels are equally bad, but s/he still needs to watch as many movies as possible, with the proviso that it either watches an entire series or none of the movies in it. Show that in this case the decision version of the interval scheduling problem is NP-complete. Please state the decision version ﬁrst explicitly, then show that it is NP-complete. An entire series counts as a single viewing. [12 points]