SENG 438 – Software Testing, Reliability, and Quality Assignment #1 solution




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1.1 Objectives

The goal of this assignment is to teach students the basics of automated unit testing, with a focus on testing based on the requirements for each unit. JUnit, a tool that is part of the XUnit framework family, is the most commonly used unit testing framework for Java. Upon completion of the lab, students will be able to:
– Create automated test code using JUnit and other XUnit testing frameworks such as NUnit.
– Incorporate and work with mock objects in test code development.

## 1.2 This Lab is a Group Work

This lab and the report for this lab should be completed as a group.

## 1.3 Overview

This lab is comprised of three primary sections. The initial section focuses on familiarization. The subsequent section is dedicated to creating unit tests based on the requirements outlined in Javadocs. Finally, once the test suites have been completed, the final stage involves running the tests on multiple versions of the system under test and collecting the results.

## 1.4 Testing Tools

JUnit and Javadoc are the main tools used in this lab.

JUnit is a popular, free unit testing tool and framework for Java.
Javadoc is used as the format to store requirements specifications for generating test suites. It also allows for creation of API documentation within source code, improving communication and keeping documentation up to date.

More information on JUnit can be found at and more information on Javadoc can be found at

## 1.5 System Under Test

The system to be tested in this lab is JFreeChart [3]. JFreeChart is an open-source Java framework for chart calculation, creation, and display. This framework supports various chart types, such as pie charts, bar charts, line charts, histograms, and others. To begin working with JFreeChart, download the “” file from the Github repository ([./]( and extract the entire archive to a known location. More information on how to get started with these files will be provided in the familiarization stage (Section 2.1). Note that the versions of JFreeChart distributed for this lab do not correspond to actual releases of JFreeChart. They have been modified for the purposes of this lab.

The JFreeChart framework is intended to be integrated into other systems as a quick and simple way to add charting functionality to Java applications. With this in mind, the API for JFreeChart is designed to be relatively easy to understand, as it is intended to be used by many developers as an open-source off-the-shelf framework. A snapshot of four different types of charts drawn using JFreeChart is shown in Figure 1.

While the JFreeChart system is not technically a stand-alone application, the developers of JFreeChart have created several demo classes that can be executed to show some of the capabilities of the system. These demo classes have _Demo_ appended to the class name. For the purpose of this lab, full knowledge of the usage of the JFreeChart API is not necessary.

The framework is divided into two main packages, (1) org.jfree.chart and (2) Each of these two packages is also divided into several smaller packages. For the purpose of testing in this lab, we will be focusing on the package.

<img src=”media/four-chart-types.jpeg” alt=”four-chart-types.jpeg” width=”360″/>

Figure 1 – Figure 1 – A preview of four various chart types created with JFreeChart.

# 2 Instructions

This section provides the steps for completing the lab. It is important to note that the lab should be done in a group as previously mentioned.

**Important**: When working with JFreeChart, it is crucial to use the correct version of supporting libraries such as Java SE, JUnit, and JMock. Incorrect versions can cause compatibility issues and prevent your code from running correctly. Before beginning the assignment, make sure to verify the version of Java SE you are using and ensure that it is compatible with JUnit 4.11. Additionally, check the compatibility information for JMock to ensure it works with your Java version and JUnit 4.11. By taking the time to check the versions of these libraries, you can ensure a successful and efficient development process.

## 2.1 Familiarization

Ensure that everyone understands the concepts in this section before moving on to the rest of the lab.

1. If you haven’t done so already, extract the _JFreeChartv1.0.zip_ file from [](./

### 2.1.1 Create an Eclipse Project

1. Open Eclipse.

Note: All the figures shown are from Eclipse Java 2019-12 downloaded and installed from [1] (in installation process, we need Eclipse IDE for Java Developers for this course). If Eclipse is already installed in your system, you may need to update it.

1. Open the _New Project_ dialog by selecting the _File -\> New -\> Project_…

1. Under the folder Java, ensure that _Java Project_ is selected and in Use and execution environment JRE click on **vesrsion8** and then click _Next_

<img src=”media/creatingProject.png” alt=”creatingProject.png” width=”360″/>

2. The dialog should now be prompting for the project name. Enter _JFreeChart_ in the _Project Name_ field, and then click _Next_.

### 2.2.2 Add the Necessary Java Libraries

1. The _Java Settings_ dialog should now be displayed. This dialog has five tabs along the top: _Source_, _Projects_, _Libraries_, _Order and Export_ and _Module Dependencies_. Move to the _Libraries_ tab, and click the _Add External JARs (or Libraries)…_ button.

2. Select the _jfreechart-1.0.19.jar_ file from the known location that you already extracted in and click _Open_. Click _Add External Libraries_… again, this time add all the .jar files from the _lib_ and _lib/jMock_ directory where you have unzipped the _jfreechart-1.0.19.zip_ file. The Java Settings dialog should now look like Figure 2, below.

<img src=”media/externalLibraries.png” alt=”externalLibraries.png” width=”360″/>

**Figure 2 – The Java Settings dialog after adding required archives**

1. Click _Finish_. The project (SUT) is now set up and ready for testing. To run the demo classes, in the package explorer expand the _Referenced Libraries_ item in the newly created JFreeChart project, exposing the .jar files just added. Right click on the _jfreechart.jar_, and select _Run As \-\> Java Application_ (Figure 3).

2. In the _Select Java Application_ dialog, select any of the four demo applications (e.g., _TimeSeriesChartDemo1_), and click _OK_ as shown in Figure 4.

<img src=”media/showingCharts.png” alt=”showingCharts.png” width=”360″/>

**Figure 4 – The Select Java Application dialog**

### 2.1.3 Create a Simple JUnit Test

To create a test suite containing a single unit test in JUnit, follow these steps.

1. In the package explorer, expand the _Referenced Libraries_ list item to show
all the archives that the project uses.

2. Expand the jfreechart.jar archive to expose all the packages that are
contained in that archive.

3. Expand the package within the archive to show all the .class
files contained in that package.

4. Finally, expand the Range.class item to expose the class contained in that
file, along with all the class’ methods and fields contained in that class.

5. click on the Range class (has a green ‘C’ icon, denoting it is a class), and
then from the eclipse menu select File -\>_New -\> JUnit Test Case_. Type
_RangeTest_ in the _Name_ field and type ‘.test’ in the _Package_ field at
the end of the default package (now it should be to
create a new package for the test cases. Ensuring that test classes are in a
separate package makes it easier to keep the two apart.

6. Click _Finish_.

7. As a practice, write a simple test case for the getCentralValue() method.
See <img src=”media/JunitTest.png” alt=”JunitTest.png” width=”360″/>



import static org.junit.Assert.*; import; import org.junit.*;

public class RangeTest {
private Range exampleRange;
@BeforeClass public static void setUpBeforeClass() throws Exception {

public void setUp() throws Exception { exampleRange = new Range(-1, 1);

public void centralValueShouldBeZero() {
assertEquals(“The central value of -1 and 1 should be 0″,
0, exampleRange.getCentralValue(), .000000001d);

public void tearDown() throws Exception {

public static void tearDownAfterClass() throws Exception {


1. Now that you have a completed test case, run the test class. To do this,
right click on the RangeTest class in the Package Explorer (under and select _Run As -\> JUnit Test_.

2. This will change the perspective to the JUnit perspective, and run all the
tests within the RangeTest class. The test just written should pass

### 2.1.4 Navigate Javadoc API Specifications

<img src=”media/doc.png” alt=”doc.png” width=”360″/>

The test generation section of this lab (Section 2.2) will require you to generate unit tests for a number of classes based on specifications (requirements) contained in the Javadocs for those classes. If you’re already familiar with Javadoc, feel free to skip this section and continue from Section 2.2.

1. Unzip the _JFreeChart–ModifiedJavadoc.zip_ file and open the file _index.html_. This is the Javadoc for (a slightly modified version of) JFreeChart. Note the location of different elements in the Javadoc as shown in Appendix A.

**Note** that Javadocs can be browsed with all classes shown, or with classes filtered by package. Each of these two approaches has its usefulness. Viewing all classes is useful if you know what the class you are looking for is called, as they are ordered alphabetically. Viewing classes in a single package only is useful for when you’re not sure exactly what class you’re looking for, but know what area of the code it might be found in.

2. In the list of packages (top-left corner), scroll down to find the org.jfree.chart.axis package and click on it. This should show only a few classes in the class list (bottom left corner) now.

3. In the class list, click on the ColorBar. The main content pane now shows the API specifications of the ColorBar. Scroll down and notice the layout of the specification. At the very top is a description of the class itself (including inheritance information), followed by nested classes, attributes, methods (starting with any constructors), inherited methods, and finally the detailed specification for each method.

4. Take note of the information available in the _Method Summary_ and _Method Detail_ sections of the main content pane, as this is what you will be testing methods against (as test oracle) in the following section. For especially effective tests, however, the specifications need to be specific, precise, clear and complete.

## 2.2 Development of Unit Test Code

This section is recommended to be performed as a group, however the work may be divided and completed individually, or you may wish to employ peer programming to help ensure all requirements are tested. In either way, all the group members should be able to answer the questions from all section (even the sections they did not write) in demo session.

### 2.2.1 Test Requirements (Classes to be tested)

1. In this section, you will be required to create unit tests for several classes, testing them against their specifications. The two classes to be tested are

– (in the package Has 15 methods.

– (in the package Has 5 methods. Take your time to browse the API specifications of each of these classes in Javadoc.

### 2.2.2 Using Mocking Objects in Unit Test Code

Note that some methods in DataUtilities use the interfaces Values2D and KeyedValues. Although there may be other ways, in order to test these methods for this lab, you should utilize Mocking to test DataUtilities. Because the methods take in interfaces as parameters, you will not know how the inherited classes may function. Mocking allows us to return any values or throw any exceptions we want, when we want. Even so, you may find drawbacks to this approach; you should discuss these in your report.

To get you started, include the following example (that follows jMock notation) in your DataUtilities test code: Note that you can use any mocking framework, but the example given here are in jMock.

public void calculateColumnTotalForTwoValues() {
// setup
Mockery mockingContext = new Mockery();
final Values2D values = mockingContext.mock(Values2D.class);
mockingContext.checking(new Expectations() {
one(values).getValue(0, 0);
one(values).getValue(1, 0);
// exercise double result = DataUtilities.calculateColumnTotal(values, 0);
// verify
assertEquals(result, 10.0, .000000001d);
// tear-down: NONE in this test method


> **Note**: that a better implementation would include the Mockery and Values2D objects being initialized in the setUp() method of your test class.

### 2.2.3 Test Plan and Test-case Design (The design component of the assignment)

1. As with any testing to be done, to begin with, a plan must be first created. Document this test plan (free format), as it will be included with your lab report.

2. After you documented your test plan, you should discuss in your report how you are designing the test cases (recall the “test-case design” lectures from the class). Since you are given the requirements only, you should apply black-box test-case design techniques such equivalence classes, boundary value analysis, etc.. When applying these techniques, make sure to explicitly follow the steps discussed in the class, e.g., first derive the domain for each input variable, then the equivalence classes, etc. You should ensure that the requirements are adequately tested.

3. Carry out your test plan and create your test-cases on paper (your lab report) first. **To keep your workload manageable, we would like you to create test cases for all 5 methods of and choose 5 out of 15 methods for**

### 2.2.4 Write your Test Code based on your Test-case Design

1. The next step is to code your test code in the JUnit framework based on the list of test cases you have designed on paper. Each test method should include one test case only. For example: testPositiveValuesForMethodX() and testNegativeValuesForMethodX(), instead of a single testMethodX(). This will help to keep test cases consistent, and make analysis of test case impact simpler later on. For writing your test methods, please use the example discussed earlier in Section 2.1.3.

2. Before writing your test methods, you should first read the class notes on JUnit about testing code standards and patterns and also naming conventions and follow them in your test code development.

3. If you have divided the tests and completed them individually, then upon completion of the tests, review each other’s tests, looking for any inconsistencies or defects in the tests themselves.

4. Execute the test suite you have created on Note that the classes have random defects in them intentionally, and thus several of your tests should fail. Therefore, to write your test methods, you need to follow the specifications, not the actual results.

# 3. Summary

Upon completion of this lab, students should have a reasonable understanding of unit testing based on unit requirements using the JUnit framework. Note that unit testing and JUnit are very comprehensive, and it takes quite a lot of time to be an expert in them. So, do not expect to be JUnit experts just by completing this lab. If you would like to have a career path in this industry-hot topic, you will need to study this popular framework in more detail and perform more exercises to be skillful.

The unit testing knowledge you gained in this lab can be scaled up to much larger systems, and can be very useful in industry.

# 4 Deliverables and Grading

## 4.1 Demo (20%)

The objectives for the demo are a) Preparing you for technical presentations, b) an early assessment of your work to give you a second chance to submit a high quality report, and c) making sure everybody in the team contributes evenly.

It is mandatory for all team members to attend the demo session and explain the TAs in the lab what they have done for this assignment. All the team members should attend the demo. The TAs will go through the groups and each group member must demonstrate examples of developed tests for each method that they designed (and bugs they found) – at least two tests per student, which one uses mocking. They should also explain their strategy for designing the tests.

**NOTE1: Student who miss the demo session or are unable to demo what is detailed above are considered as less- contributors and may lose up to the entire assignment 2’s mark.**

**NOTE2: You still have time to further improve your test suite, after the demo session and before the deadline.**

**NOTE3: The TAs will ask questions and all the group members should be able to answer the questions individually.**

**NOTE4: All the students should demo all the parts including mocking even if they did not write the code for that part**

**when dividing the work.**

## 4.2 Lab Report (20%)

To be consistent, please use the template Word file [“”]( provided in the reopsitory.

| Marking scheme | |
| ——————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————— | — |
| A detailed description of the testing strategy for unit testing and your test-case design approach, i.e., how you used the black-box test-case design techniques equivalence classes, and boundary value analysis. Also list the name of the test cases you have designed and identify which one covers which parts of the strategy (which partition, which class, etc.) Include a discussion about what you feel are the benefits and drawbacks about using mocking. | 15% |
| A discussion on how the team work/effort was divided and managed. Any lessons learned from your teamwork on this lab? | 2% |
| Difficulties encountered, challenges overcome, and lessons learned from performing the lab | 2% |
| Comments/feedback on the lab itself | 1% |

## 4.3 Junit Test Suite (60%)

Your Eclipse project including any external library for mocking and all test suite Java files should be submitted along with the lab report in GitHub. The JUnit test should be executable AS IS. No restricting, importing, etc. should be needed.

The grading criteria for JUnit test suite are as follows:

| **Marking scheme** | |
| ———————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————— | — |
| **Clarity:** are they easy to follow, through commenting or style, etc.? The test cases should also have comments that shows which test follows which part of the test strategy. E.g., this test covers a maximum value for variable X and normal values for variable Y and Z in method A(X,Y,Z) | 10% |
| **Adherence to requirements:** do they cover all the classes and partitions described in the test strategy?) | 10% |
| **Completeness:** are there any obvious requirements which have not been tested? Have equivalence classes, and boundary value analysis been followed carefully? Is your unit test suite clearly match the test-case design section in your lab report? | 20% |
| **Correctness:** do test run without error? do the tests actually test what they are intended to test? | 20% |

> **Important note**: Please store the JUnit test suite you have developed in this lab in a known location. It will be re-used in the next Labs.

# 5 References

– [1] “,” Internet: [](
– [2] “Javadoc,” Internet: <>
– [3] “JFreeChart,” Internet: <>
– [4] “JUnit,” Internet: [](

# 6 Appendix A – Javadoc Example

<img src=”media/doc.png” alt=”doc.png” width=”360″/>