Ring Election Algorithim solution

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###Java Implementaion of a Leader Election Using Ring Algorithm.

####Election Algorithms

The coordinator election problem is to choose a process from among a group of processes on different processors in a distributed system to act as the central coordinator.
An election algorithm is an algorithm for solving the coordinator election problem. By the nature of the coordinator election problem, any election algorithm must be a distributed algorithm.
-a group of processes on different machines need to choose a coordinator
-peer to peer communication: every process can send messages to every other process.
-Assume that processes have unique IDs, such that one is highest
-Assume that the priority of process Pi is i

1. Assume that processes form a ring: each process only sends messages to the next process in the ring
2. Active list: Its info on all other active processes
3. Assumption: Message continues around the ring even if a process along the way has crashed.

#####Background (Ring Algorithm):
Any process Pi sends a message to the current coordinator; if no response in T time units, Pi initiates an election

1. Initialize active list to empty.
2. Send an “Elect(i)” message to the right. + add i to active list.

If a process receives an “Elect(j)” message

1. this is the first message sent or seen
2. initialize its active list to [i,j]; send “Elect(i)” + send “Elect(j)”
3. if i != j, add i to active list + forward “Elect(j)” message to active list
4. otherwise (i = j), so process i has complete set of active processes in its active list.
5. choose highest process ID + send “Elected (x)” message to neighbor
6. If a process receives “Elected(x)” message,
7. set coordinator to x

######Example:
Suppose that we have four processes arranged in a ring: P1 – P2 – P3 – P4 – P1

1. P4 is coordinator
2. Suppose P1 + P4 crash
3. Suppose P2 detects that coordinator P4 is not responding
4. P2 sets active list to [ ]
5. P2 sends “Elect(2)” message to P3; P2 sets active list to [2]
6. P3 receives “Elect(2)”
7. This message is the first message seen, so P3 sets its active list to [2,3]
8. P3 sends “Elect(3)” towards P4 and then sends “Elect(2)” towards P4
9. The messages pass P4 + P1 and then reach P2
10. P2 adds 3 to active list [2,3]
11. P2 forwards “Elect(3)” to P3
12. P2 receives the “Elect(2) message
P2 chooses P3 as the highest process in its list [2, 3] and sends an “Elected(P3)” message
13. P3 receives the “Elect(3)” message
P3 chooses P3 as the highest process in its list [2, 3] + sends an “Elected(P3)” message

Source: [Election In A Ring = Ring Algorithm] (http://www2.cs.uregina.ca/~hamilton/courses/330/notes/distributed/distributed.html)