In the lectures, you learned about Spanning Trees, which can be used to prevent forwarding
loops on a layer 2 network. In this project, you will develop a simplified distributed version of
the Spanning Tree Protocol that can be run on an arbitrary layer 2 topology (a topology of
arbitrary nodes and links consisting of connected, uniquely-numbered switches with nonredundant links – see “Key assumptions and clarifications” below).
This project is different from
the previous project in that we’re not running the simulation using the Mininet environment (Don’t
worry, Mininet will be back in later projects!). Rather, we will be simulating the communications
between switches until they converge on a single solution, and then output the final spanning
tree to a file.
For this project, please use the class VM that you set up and used for Project 1.
We will provide a Project 2 walk-through and answer questions during Week 2 and Week 3 TA
Office Hours, and please post questions to the dedicated Project 2 Piazza Posts:
• Project 2 Posted @81
• Project 2 Questions about Project Code @80
• Project 2 Test Topologies, Spanning Tree Outputs/Log Files, and Test Suites
• Project 2 Infinite Loops/Message Processing/Queues @78
• Project 2 What is pathThrough? @77
• Project 2 Assumptions and Clarifications in the Project Description @76
• Project 2 Log File Formatting @75
In the Project2 directory, you can see quite a few files. You only need to (and should only)
modify one of them, Switch.py. It represents a layer 2 switch that implements our simple
Spanning Tree Protocol. You will have to implement the functionality described in the lectures and
at the links above in the code sections marked with TODOcomments to generate a Spanning Tree
for each Switch.
The other files that form the project skeleton are:
• Topology.py- Represents a network topology of layer 2 switches. This class reads in
the specified topology and arranges it into a data structure that your switch code can
• StpSwitch.py – A superclass of the class you will edit in Switch.py. It abstracts
certain implementation details to simplify your tasks.
• Message.py – This class represents a simple message format you will use to
communicate between switches. The format is similar to what was described in the
course lectures. Specifically, you will create and send messages in Switch.py by
declaring a message as msg
= Message(claimedRoot, distanceToRoot, originID, destinationID, pathThrough)
and assigning the correct data to each input. See the comments in Message.py
for more information on the data in these variables.
• run_spanning_tree.py- A simple “main” file that loads a topology file (see
XXXTopo.py below), uses that data to create a Topology object containing Switches,
and starts the simulation.
• XXXTopo.py, etc – These are topology files that you will pass as input to the
• sample_output.txt – Example of a valid output file for Sample.py as described in
the comments in Switch.py.
Here is an outline of the few sections of code that you will have to complete in Switch.py with
suggestions for implementing the code, but you are free to implement your distributed spanning
tree algorithm in other ways as long as it adheres to the spirit of the project and completes the
labeled TODO sections in the project code per the comments in the code:
1. Decide on the data structure that you will use to keep track of the spanning tree. The
collection of active links across all switches is the resultant spanning tree. The data
structure may be any variables needed to track each switch’s own view of the tree. Keep
in mind that in a distributed algorithm, the switch can only communicate with its
neighbors. It does not have an overall view of the tree as a whole.
An example data
structure would include, at a minimum, a variable to store the switchID that this switch
currently sees as the root, a variable to store the distance to the switch’s root, and a list
or other datatype that stores the “active links” (i.e., the links to neighbors that should be
drawn in the spanning tree). More variables may be helpful to track data needed to build
the spanning tree.
The switches are trying to learn the root, or the switch with the lowest id and the path to
the switch. To track the path to the root, each switch may need to know which neighbor
it goes through to get there and the distance of the path to the root. To output the
spanning tree, the switch also needs to know whether it is on the path its neighbor
takes to get to the root.
2. Implement the Spanning Tree Protocol by writing code that sends the initial messages
to neighbors of the switch, and processes a message from an immediate neighbor.
The comments describe how to send messages to immediate neighbors using the
provided superclass. The messages are processed as a FIFO queue. As each switch
processes messages, it compares the received message data to the data in its data
structure to build the spanning tree. The switches do not need to push or pop on the
FIFO queue since Topology.py does this for the switch as each switch calls
The switch will update the root stored in the data structure if the switch receives a
message with a root of a lower ID. The switch will update the distance stored in the data
structure if the switch updates the root or if there is a tiebreaker situation that indicates a
shorter path to the root. The switch will change the activeLinks stored in the data
structure in two situations: First, if the switch finds a new path to the root, meaning the
switch goes through a new neighbor to get to the root, so the switch will ensure the new
neighbor is in its activeLinks. Second, if the switch receives a message with
pathThrough = True but the switch did not have that originID in its activeLinks list, so the
switch must add originID to the activeLinks list or if the switch receives a message with
paththrough = False but the switch has that originID in its activeLinks so it needs to
remove originID from the activeLinks list.
You may find other variables helpful for determining when to update the data
structure, so those should be added to your data structure and updated as needed.
You may also choose to update your data structure variables in a different algorithm.
When to send messages is a significant decision in designing your algorithm, so think
carefully about this.
There are many correct algorithms that send messages at
different times. When sending out messages, pathThrough should only be True if the
destinationID switch is the neighbor that the switch with ID of originID goes through to
get to the root. For example, if switchID 6 goes through neighbor with switchID 9 to
get to the root, then the message from switch 6 to switch 9 would be originID= 6,
destinationID = 9, pathThrough = True. And the messages to the other neighbors of
switchID 6 would have pathThrough = False. Each switch only goes through one
neighbor to get to the root.
3. Write a logging function that is specific to your particular data structure. The format is
simple, and should output only the links active in spanning tree.
To run your code on a specific topology (SimpleLoopTopo in this case) and output the results
to a text file (out.txt in this case), execute the following command:
python run_spanning_tree.py SimpleLoopTopo out.txt
For this project, you will be able to create as many topologies as you wish and share them on
Piazza. We encourage you to share new topologies, and your output files to confirm
correctness of your algorithm. We have included several topologies for you to test your code
Key assumptions and clarifications
To avoid confusion, there are some assumptions we will make about behaviors of switches in
1. You should assume that all switch IDs are positive integers, and distinct. These integers
do not have to be consecutive and they will not always start at 1.
2. Tie breakers: All ties will be broken by lowest switch ID, meaning that if a switch has
multiple paths to the root at the same length, it will select the path through the lowestid
neighbor. For example, assume switch 5 has two paths to the root, through switch 3 and
switch 2. Assume further each path is 2 hops in length, then switch 5 will select switch 2
as the path to the root and disable forwarding on the link to switch 3.
3. Combining points one and two above, there is a single distinct solution spanning
tree for each topology.
4. You can assume all switches in the network will be connected to at least one other
switch, and all switches are able to reach every other switch.
5. You can assume that there will be no redundant links and there will be only 1 link
between each pair of connected switches.
6. You can assume that the topology given at the start will be the final topology and there
won’t be any changes as your algorithm runs (i.e adding a new switch).
7. Note that when a switch deactivates/blocks a port, this port is not completely
discarded. While the switch treats it as inactive, it will still be communicated with during the
What to turn in
You only need to turn in the file you modify, Switch.py to Canvas, but you need to zip the file
with your GTID you use to log into Canvas and the project number, such as mmckinzie5_p2.zip.
Be sure Switch.py is at the top directory in the zip file such that when it is unzipped.
There are some very important guidelines for this file you must follow:
1. Your submission must terminate! If your submission runs indefinitely (i.e. contains
an infinite loop, or logic errors prevent solution convergence) it will not receivefull
credit. Termination here is defined as self-termination by the process. Manually killing your
submission via console commands or interrupts is not an acceptable means of
termination. The simulation stops when there are no messages left to send, at which
time the logging function is called for each switch.
2. Pay close attention to the logging format! Our autograder expects your logs to be in
a very specific format, specified in the comments. We provide you an example of a
valid output log as well. Also pay close attention to how the links in the spanning tree
should be ordered, separated in your log file, and what information belongs on its own
line. Don’t log anything other than what we ask you to! We provide example logs in the
3. Remove any print statements from your code before turning it in! Print statements
left in the simulation, particularly for inefficient but logically sound implementations, have
drastic effects on run-time. Your submission should take well less than 10 seconds to
process a topology.
If your leave print statements in your code and they adversely affect
the grading process, your work will not receive full credit. Feel free to use print
statements during the project for debugging, but please remove them before you submit
Spirit of the Project
The goal of this project is to implement a simplified version of a network protocol using a
distributed algorithm. This means that your algorithm should be implemented at the network
switch level. Each switch only knows its internal state, and the information passed to it via
messages from its direct neighbors – the algorithm must be based on these messages.
The skeleton code we provide you runs a simulation of the larger network topology, and for the
sake of simplicity, the StpSwitch class defines a link to the overall topology. This means it is
possible using the provided code for one Switch to access another’s internal state. This goes
against the spirit of the project, and is not permitted. Additional detail is available in the
comments of the skeleton code.
Additionally, you are not permitted to change the message passing format. We will not accept
modified versions of Message.py, nor are you permitted to subclass the Message class.
When we grade your code, we will use a special version of the skeleton code that will have a
randomly generated variable name for the topology object.
If you access it directly in order to
generate your spanning tree, your code will throw a runtime error, and receive no credit. In
short – do not use topolink or self.topology objects in your code. Pay careful attention to
the code comments. If you have questions about whether your code is accessing data it should
not, please ask on Piazza or during office hours!
What you can (and cannot) share
Do not share code from Switch.pywith your fellow students, on Piazza, or publicly in any
form. You may share log files for any topology, and you may also share any code you write that
will not be turned in, such as new topologies or other testing code. (It may be a good idea to
share a “correct” logs for a particular topology, if you have one, when you share the code for that
for turning in all the correct files with the correct names, and significant
effort has been made in each file towards completing the project.
for correct Spanning Tree results (log file) on the provided topologies.
for correct Spanning Tree results (log file) on three topologies that you
will not see in advance. They are slightly more complex than the
provided ones, and may test for corner cases.
GRADING NOTE: Partial credit is not available for individual topology spanning tree output files.
The output spanning tree must be correct to receive credit for that input topology. Thus,
missing a single link will result in losing credit for that topology. Additionally, we will be using many
topologies to test your project, including but not limited to the topologies we provide.
Additional Tips and Resources
Creating the Data Structure:
It is important to create a data structure in the correct place in Python (and most object oriented
programming languages). If you create it inside a method, every time method is called it will be
created as new. You should create a class object in the class constructor so that the data stored in
the object exists for the life of the class instance that is created by Topology.py. For example
self.mylist = [ ] in the constructor should create an empty list data structure and act as instance
variable. But if mylist were instantiated in, say, process_messages, then it will be created every time
the method is called. This could be useful in how you track which links are active to certain neighbors
for any given switch.
Logging the Output
The output must be sorted. For example, your output should be:
1 – 2, 1 – 3
2 – 1, 2 – 4
3 – 1
4 – 2
However, this is not sorted:
1 – 3, 1 – 2,
2 – 4, 2 – 1,
4 – 2
3 – 1
Use of pathThrough
The pathThrough object passed in the messages is a boolean value representing whether the
source of the message sees the destination as its path to the root. It is used so the destination
keeps the source as an ActiveLink. Do not confuse this as a switch ID for the path to the root. You
may define a variable to keep track of the switch’s path to the root, storing the switchID. Keep in
mind that in the message() function you are sending the boolean value, not the switchID.
Questions to ask yourself
1. How does an infinite loop happen? When does each switch know it has a complete view of the
tree or it should stop processing? How do the queues empty?
2. What is that pathThrough variable in the project code? Why is it required? Why did the project
creators force that structure on the project?
3. Why did we have to give those assumptions? What would be unclear if they were notincluded?
4. How should the log files be formatted? Commas, semicolons, line endings? What is meant by