CS 5004 Lab 7 Abstract Classes, Polymorphism, and Packages solution




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Last week in Lab we practiced using inheritance with a hierarchy of bird
classes. The main goal of tonight’s lab is to practice using similar concepts but
where the parent class is abstract, meaning that not every method is defined.
One reason for using abstract classes is when ideas are conceptually related
but calculated in different ways. For example, we think of Rectangles and
Circles as both being Shapes, whose areas can be measured. However, the
method for computing the area is different for each. At the same time, other
methods, such as how to compare areas, might be the same; so, we could
eliminate duplicate code by capturing it in the more abstract parent class. For
methods that are the same for different kinds of shapes, inheritance saves
work. For methods that differ, depending on which kind of shape,
polymorphism saves the day.
0. Create a folder for your Shapes package, called myShapes. Initially, create
three .java files within that folder: Shapes.java, Rectangle.java, and
Circle.java. Depending on your IDE, your myShapes folder might need to be
within another folder; for example, IntelliJ prefers a folder called src. The first
line of each file should read: package myShapes;
(When you go to build and run, you may need to tinker with your IDE config
a bit to help it find the other files and the main method, in Class Rectangle.)
1. In Shapes.java, enter this starter code:
public abstract class Shape {
abstract double area();
abstract double perimeter();
public boolean compareTo(Shape other) {
return true; // replace by logic
Notice that one of the methods is “abstract,” meaning it must be defined in
its subclasses. The other is “concrete” meaning that the subclasses can
share the same method without duplicating code. In “top down” style,
replace “true” by logic that returns true iff this Shape is larger in area than
the other Shape, even though the area method is not yet defined.
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2. In your Rectangle class, get started like this:
public class Rectangle extends Shape {
Create private double instance variables for width and length. Create
accessors and mutators for each. Create a constructor that accepts width
and length parameters, a default constructor that creates a new 0x0
rectangle, and a copy constructor that duplicates an existing Rectangle.
3. Create a method, area, that returns a double calculated as the length times
the width of the Rectangle. Be sure to use @Override in front of it, since you
are overriding the abstract definition in the Shapes class.
4. Create an analogous method for the perimeter.
5. Begin a main method for testing your package within the Rectangle class.
Initially, you should create a few Rectangles to test your constructors,
getters, and setters, and print their areas and perimeters. Try using the
parent compareTo method to compare areas. Notice that you can create
new Rectangles and assign them to variables of either type Rectangle or
type Shape.
6. Create your Circle class in the same way. It does not have length or width,
but it does have an instance variable (double) for the radius. Create
methods for the area and the perimeter (circumference), overriding the
abstract methods from the abstract Shape class. Add tests to your main
method for Circles, including comparing the areas of Rectangles and
7. Add a Triangle class. Instance variables should be the lengths of its 3 sides.
Hint for the area method: https://www.mathopenref.com/heronsformula.html
8. Add toString methods for each Shape and test.
Submit your answers to above items to Canvas for CS5005 (due next
Thursday by midnight). Only your .java files for the above need to be uploaded.
Prompt submission encouraged, but late is better than never.
Work on any unfinished labs or CS5004 homework assignments. If finished,
submit homeworks to Canvas CS5004.