ECE357 PS 7 using strace solution




5/5 - (6 votes)

Problem 1 — using strace
The strace command under Linux is used to run a program with system call tracing enabled. This allows you to
see the system calls that are being made along with their return values, and other events such as signal delivery and
handling. strace can also be used to attach tracing to an already-running process. Please read the man page for strace.
Then, write a very simple C program to output a fixed message to standard output (the proverbial “hello world”).
Run this program with strace and observe the system calls made. You will notice a lot of system calls made that bear
no correlation to the code that you wrote. This is the shared library system getting initialized. Find the write
system call associated with your output. Also find the _exit system call (no need to attach output for part 1)
Problem 2 — pure assembly
Write a pure assembly language program to write a message to standard output using the write system call directly
from assembly, with no help from the standard C library or the C compiler. Therefore you will write a
.S file, assemble it to a .o file using as, and transform it into an executable a.out file using ld. Repeat: do not use
cc! Your a.out file will be only a few hundred bytes long, most of which is the a.out header. The objdump or
readelf commands will allow you to explore this and provide hours of fun, for example objdump -d a.out
will disassemble the binary a.out file and show you the opcodes inside. (no need to attach output for these
The lecture notes explain the API for both 32-bit (using INT $0x80) and 64-bit (using SYSCALL). Be mindful of
which API you are running under. For 32-bit, use the flag –32 to as and -m elf_i386 to ld. For 64-bit, use –64 for as
and elf_x86_64 for ld. An a.out which has been flagged as 32-bit architecture by ld will be run by the kernel in
32-bit mode, even if your system is natively a 64-bit system. Since the APIs are incompatible, if you have written to
the 64-bit API but assembled/linked as 32-bit, your program will be garbage and will not run. Conversely,a64-bit
program can not be run at all if you are natively running in 32-bit mode. The system header files
/usr/include/asm/unistd_32.h and /usr/include/asm/unistd_64.h contain the system call
numbers for each API. Or, you can “google” this information.
Note that the first opcode of your .text section will be the default start-of-execution address (unless you use
additional flags to ld) so make sure it is what you want as the first opcode! Also note you will need some pseudoopcodes such as for embedding a string in your program.
Attach a screenshot showing your assemble/link build process. Attach the strace output from running this program
showing that it successfully made the write system call, and the output from the program showing that the message
was written to the standard output.
Note: The program for part 2 should contain ONLY the write system call.
Problem 3 — exit code
Now, observe the strace output after the write system call, and comment on what you see. How does your program
exit? Why do you think this is? Explain in your write-up.
Write another version of the program that has the _exit system call so that the program exits with a specific nonzero return code. Show that this worked via strace, and also by looking at the shell variable $? after execution.
Problem 4 — system call validation
Write a version of your part 3 program that either passes an invalid system call number, or an inv alid parameter to
write. Show via the strace output what happened and discuss.
ECE357:Computer Operating Systems PS 7/pg 2 ©2018 Jeff Hakner
Problem 5EC — scheduling
(+2 points)
Write a test program which creates a number of CPU-bound processes. One of those processes will have a nondefault nice value. Both the number of processes and the nice value will be command-line flags. After spawning
the processes, the parent process will sleep for the specified number of seconds, then kill all the children and collect
their respective rusage structures. Report the sum total CPU time consumed by the children, and the CPU time by
the child which had the non-default nice value. Note: include both system and user CPU time.
$ ./cputimes 16 0 5
Spawning 16 processes and waiting 5 seconds, first child process will have nice 0
Total CPU time was 39853000 us
Task 0 CPU time was 2493000 us
Task 0 received 6.25549% of total CPU
$ ./cputimes 16 10 5
Spawning 16 processes and waiting 5 seconds, first child process will have nice 10
Total CPU time was 39851000 us
Task 0 CPU time was 276000 us
Task 0 received 0.69258% of total CPU
Your output does not have to match the example above. In fact, to make charting easier, you might want to output in
a different format that can export more easily into a spreadsheet.
Note that in the output above, this is running on an 8-CPU machine. Over a 5-second period, the maximum
theoretical CPU time would be 40 seconds. We see that our 16 test processes got 39.9 seconds which tells us that the
system was otherwise idle. When you pick a sample time, 5 seconds is probably a minimum otherwise brief
fluctuations in system load can drastically affect your answers.
Run various combinations of #processes and nice value. In particular,Iwant you to experiment with a small number
of processes (smaller than the total number of available cores on your system) as well as a large number. Comment
on why the nice value appears to not affect things for small numbers of processes relative to CPU cores (run this on a
system that is generally quiet, i.e. not a system which is running your machine learning projects!)
Present your results in graphical or tabular format, with analysis and commentary.