CSC4222/6222: Assignment 1 concepts of C.I.A solution




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1. 1) Explain the concepts of C.I.A and the tools to achieve C.I.A, respectively.
2) What are the differences between message confidentiality and message integrity?
Can you have confidentiality without integrity? Can you have integrity without
confidentiality? Justify your answer.
3) Please Specify and explain which concept(s) each of following cases violates.
a. John copies Mary’s homework.
b. Paul crashes Linda’s system.
c. Carol changes the amount of Angelo’s check from $100 to $1,000.
d. Gina forges Roger’s signature on a deed.
e. Rhonda registers the domain name “” and refuses to let the
publishing house buy or use that domain name.
f. Jonah obtains Peter’s credit card number and has the credit card company cancel
the card and replace it with another card bearing a different account number.
g. Henry spoofs Julie’s IP address to gain access to her computer.
h. Jonah sends Peter an e-mail with a 2MB attachment, knowing that Peter’s
remaining quota for his e-mail account is 2.1MB.
i. Anna registers the domain name “” and refuses to let John Smith
buy or use the domain name.
2. Compare and contrast symmetric encryption with public-key encryption, including
the strengths and weaknesses of each.
3. What is Authenticity and the tools to achieve Authenticity?
Please Explain: Can Bob violate an agreement with his digital signature or not?
4. Please describe the concept of the following methods of Threats & Attacks and give
a protecting method.
a. Alteration
b. Denial-of-Services
c. Correlation and Traceback
5. Please explain what if a newly designed system without the following Security
a. Fail-Safe Default
b. Complete Mediation
c. Separation of Privilege
6. a. Can you “decrypt” a hash of a message to get the original message? Explain your
b. In what way does the public-key encrypted message hash provide a better digital
signature than the public-key encrypted message?
7. Bob thinks that generating and storing a random salt value for each userid is a waste.
Instead, he is proposing that his system administrators use a cryptographic hash of
the userid as its salt. Describe whether this choice impacts the security of salted
passwords and include an analysis of the respective search space sizes.
8. Suppose you could use all 128 characters in the ASCII character set in a password.
What is the number of 8-character passwords that could be constructed from such a
character set? How long, on average, would it take an attacker to guess such a
password if he could test a password every nanosecond?
9. a. Barack often sends funny jokes to Hillary. He does not care about
confidentiality of these messages but wants to get credit for the jokes and prevent
Bill from claiming authorship of or modifying them. How can this be achieved
using public-key cryptography?
b. As public-key cryptography is computationally intensive and drains the battery
of Barack’s device, he comes up with an alternative approach. First, he shares a
secret key k with Hillary but not with Bill. Next, together with a joke x, he sends
over the value d = h(k||x), where h is a cryptographic hash function. Does value d
provide assurance to Hillary that Barack is the author of x and that x was not
modified by Bill? Justify your answer.
10. Check the router (or access point) at your home. List 5 security features your router
is using to protect your home network. For each feature, a screenshot and a brief
description of its functionality are required.