In this assignment, we will be be creating two switches that implement forwarding within a L2
First, we will create a static switch which will show how switches forward. This will use a
much smaller configuration (you’ll see why!). Second, we will create learning switch for a much larger
topology wherein switches learn which port to forward traffic to get to any end host.
For this assignment, we will be using the Pyretic controller to program the switches. Much of the
difficult parts are abstracted out in the helper file included within the assignment, but there are some
features that you will need to read up on. See the wiki and this page in particular to get a feel for the
Before getting started, you will need to update your CS6250 repository using the following commands
from the 2015-Summer-OMS6250 directory:
git commit -a -m “Saving work”
git pull –rebase
In the new assignment-2 directory, there are six files. You can read up on __init__.py here and
here. helpers.py contains helper functions. You will need to use the print routines in it to output your
results in a format that we can grade. The files that end with -topo.py are the topology files that you
will use to run the assignments. You will not have to modify them. The final two files are the
Part 1 – Static Switching
Static switching is where we manually fill in switch tables matching destination MAC address to the
port the packets should go out of. It is similar to how static routing works, except at the MAC layer
rather than IP layer.
There are serious problems, however. First, it doesn’t scale well – for each end
host, each switch must have a forwarding path programmed in. Second, it cannot handle dynamic
changes – if a host moves from Switch A to Switch B, many, possibly all, switches have to have the
forwarding path updated. Third, it’s highly error prone.
What it does do is provide us with a good example of how to deal with Pyretic, in particular
manipulating packets and creating forwarding behaviour. It also shows us how forwarding behaviour
is implemented by keying off of the destination MAC address to make forwarding decisions.
The topology we are using is above. In code, Switch 1 is Switch A in the diagram above, and Switch 2 is
Switch B. This is to simplify descriptions using the diagram, and limitation Mininet.
Look in the file static-forwarding-topo.py . This is a description of the topology. It’s very
You can start this by, in one terminal, running the command
sudo python static-forwarding-topo.py . If you see a warning about
Unable to contact the remote controller , you can ignore that. As long as you get the
mininet> prompt, it’s working. (You may see an error,
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Exception: Error creating interface pair: RTNETLINK answers: File exists on
subsequent runs. You can run sudo mn -c to clear this.)
From the mininet> prompt, you can run commands on hosts/switches by giving the name of the
host/switch followed by the command. For example, h1 ifconfig will run ifconfig on host h1. This
can be useful for querying the topology for details about the hosts/switches.
Now, you will need to make changes to static-forwarding.py in the sections marked TODO .
As it stands, this file will not run without your modifications. There is significant example code
that you can base your code on.
It will be useful to know that MAC addresses are assigned to the hosts as 00:00:00:00:00:01 to the
first host (i.e., the first call to addHost() ), 00:00:00:00:00:02 to the second, and so forth…
You also need to make sure the broadcast MAC ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff is forwarded to all ports. Some
starter code for this is provided.
When you written up your forwarding table, you must write out your forwarding configuration.
Use the functions at the beginning of helpers.py . First, open a file with the name
static-forwarding.log using the open_log() function, write out all the forwarding table
entries (order doesn’t matter), then close the file with `finish_log()’.
To run your code, you will need to copy it over to the pyretic directory, then run it with Pyretic. To
do this, you’ll need to use the following commands.
cp static-forwarding.py helpers.py ~/pyretic/pyretic/modules; cd ~/pyretic; python pyretic.py -m p0 pyretic.modules.static-forwarding
or use the provided run script for more convenient use.
Part 2 – Learning Switch
Learning Switch Review
We’re going to go over how learning switches work again, just in case, using the topology from the
first part of the assignment.
When the topology has just come up, the switch tables are empty. When a packet goes from Host 1
(with MAC address 1, for simplicity’s sake), and is destined for Host 2, it first goes to Switch A. Switch
A will record which port Host 1 came in on. Since Switch A does not know where the MAC address for
2 is, will flood and send a copy of the packet to both remaining ports. It will reach Host 2, but it will
also reach Switch 2. Switch 2 will save off how to get to Host 1 (via Switch 1), and flood to hosts 3 and
If, afterward, Host 3 is trying to send a packet to Host 1, Switch B learn how to get to Host 3, will not
flood and send it directly to Switch A. Switch A will also learn how to get to Host 3 (via Switch B), and
forward directly to Host 1.
Above is the topology provided for the assignment. There are significantly more switches than in the
review, however this allows for more test cases possible. You will be able to use both this topology
and the one for the static part of the assignment for testing purposes.
Completing this part of the assignment is similar to the first half.
Look in the file learning-switch-topo.py . It’s much more complicated than
static-forwarding-topo.py but you can run in the same way. You can (and should!) use both
topologies for your own testing.
In learning-switch.py there are significantly more TODOs than in the first half. The biggest
difference is filling in the learn_route() function. You have lots of different ways of handling
the forwarding table, and it’s up to you to decide on the right thing to do. We’ve placed
suggestions in the file that you can follow or ignore if you have other ideas. Logging is different
At the beginning, you must open the file as before with the filename
learning-switch.log . You should fill in print_switch_tables() by logging all entries in the log
file as before, then calling next_entry() once logged each entry in the switch table. This is so
we get a view over time of the changes in the switch forwarding table.
2.You also need to make sure the broadcast MAC ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff is forwarded to all ports. Refer to
the starter code from the static forwarding portion to see how this can be done.
Running your code is similar to before. To do this, you’ll need to use the following commands.
cp learning-switch.py helpers.py ~/pyretic/pyretic/modules; cd ~/pyretic; python pyretic.py -m p0 pyretic.modules.learning-switch
or use the provided run script for more convenient use.
Note that if you test with ping, the first few pings (usually ~3) may not go through while the switch
learns, so allow several pings before you conclude it’s not working… However, once a path is learned,
subsequent pings should go through okay.
What to turn in
You will need to turn in two files:
The autograder will run each piece of code and verify its output file. BE SURE TO USE THE CORRECT
FILE NAME OR YOU WILL RECEIVE A ZERO.
For the static forwarding part, we will use the exact same topology as you did.
For the learning switch, we will be using a different topology so that you can be sure that your code is
For the learning switch, do not use outside code. There is plenty of it existing – which you can review,
but not use.
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