SYSC4001 ASSIGNMENT2: Simple Shell solution

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In this assignment, you will explore and extend a simple Unix shell
interpreter. In doing so, you will learn the basics of system calls
for creating and managing processes.

STEP 1: Compile the shell
==========================

chmod +x b.sh
make
make test # Use in Step 5 to test your changes to the assignment
./shell

STEP 2: Try using the shell
============================

Note: You need to specify the absolute paths of commands.

Some commands to try:
/bin/ls
/bin/ls ..
cd /
/bin/pwd
/bin/bash
exit
./shell (Note: You need to be in the assignment2 directory.)
./shell& (Note: You need to be in the assignment2 directory.)
./b.sh (Note: You need to be in the assignment2 directory.)
/bin/kill -s KILL nnnn (Where nnnn is a process ID.)

“./” means the current directory

STEP 3: Study the implementation of the shell
==============================================

In preparation for the questions in Step 4, please explore the source code
for the shell contained in ‘shell.c’. You needn’t understand every detail
of the implementation, but try to familiarize yourself with the structure
of the code, what it’s doing, and the various library functions involved.
Please use the ‘man’ command to browse the Unix manual pages describing
functions with which you are unfamiliar.

STEP 4: Questions
==================

1. Why is it necessary to implement a change directory ‘cd’ command in
the shell? Could it be implemented by an external program instead?

2. Explain how our sample shell implements the change directory command.

3. What would happen if this program did not use the fork function, but
just used execv directly? (Try it!)

Try temporarily changing the code ‘pid_from_fork = fork();’
to ‘pid_from_fork = 0;’

4. Explain what the return value of fork() means and how this program
uses it.

5. What would happen if fork() were called prior to chdir(), and chdir()
invoked within the forked child process? (Try it!)

Try temporarily changing the code for ‘cd’ to use fork:

if (fork() == 0) {
if (chdir(exec_argv[1]))
/* Error: change directory failed */
fprintf(stderr, “cd: failed to chdir %s\n”, exec_argv[1]);
exit(EXIT_SUCCESS);
}

6. Can you run multiple versions of ./b.sh in the background?
What happens to their output?

7. Can you execute a second instance of our shell from within our shell
program (use ‘./shell’)? Which shell receives your input?

8. What happens if you type CTRL-C while the countdown script ./b.sh is
running? What if ./b.sh is running in the background?

9. Can a shell kill itself? Can a shell within a shell kill the parent
shell?

./shell
./shell
/bin/kill -s KILL NNN (Where NNN is the the parent’s PID.)

10. What happens to background processes when you exit from the shell?
Do they continue to run? Can you see them with the ‘ps’ command?

./shell
./b.sh&
exit
ps

STEP 5: Modify the assignment
==============================

Please make the following modifications to the given file shell.c. As in
ASSIGNMENT1, we have included some built-in test cases, which are described
along with the feature requests below.

In addition to running the tests as listed individually, you can run
“make test” to attempt all tests on your modified code.

1. Modify this assignment so that you can use ‘ls’ instead of ‘/bin/ls’
(i.e. the shell searches the path for the command to execute.)

Test: ./shell -test path

2. Modify this assignment so that the command prompt includes a counter that
increments for each command executed (starting with 1). Your
program should use the following prompt format:
“Shell(pid=%1)%2> ” %1=process pid %2=counter
(You will need to change this into a correct printf format)
Do not increment the counter if no command is supplied to execute.

Test: ./shell -test counter

3. Modify this assignment so that ‘!NN’ re-executes the n’th command entered.
You can assume that NN will only be tested with values 1 through 9,
no more than 9 values will be entered.

Shell(…)1> ls
Shell(…)2> !1 # re-executes ls
Shell(…)3> !2 # re-executes ls
Shell(…)4> !4 # prints “Not valid” to stderr

Test: ./shell -test rerun

4. Modify the assignment so that it uses waitpid instead of wait.

5. Create a new builtin command ‘sub’ that forks the program to create
a new subshell. The parent shell should run the imtheparent()
function just as if we were running an external command (like ‘ls’).

./shell
Shell(.n1..)1> sub
Shell(.n2..)1> exit # Exits sub shell
Shell(.n1..)1> exit # Exits back to ‘real’ shell

6. Create a new global variable to prevent a subshell from invoking
a subshell invoking a subshell (i.e., more than 3 levels deep):

./shell
Shell(.n1..)1> sub
Shell(.n2..)1> sub
Shell(.n3..)1> sub # prints “Too deep!” to stderr

Test: ./shell -test sub