Question 1: Recursion
Implement a recursive Java method to calculate the sum of all digits of a number. Your method must
have the following header:
public static int digitSum( int n )
Then, implement a recursive Java method to compute the digital root of a number. Your method must
use the digitSum method. Your method must have the following header:
public static int digitalRoot( int n )
The digital root of a number is calculated by taking the sum of all of the digits in a number, and
repeating the process with the resulting sum until only a single digit remains. For example, if you start
with 1969, you must first add 1+9+6+9 to get 25. Since the value 25 has more than a single digit, you
must repeat the operation to obtain 7 as a final answer.
Your method for computing the digital root must use the digitSum method. Both methods should be
in the same file A5Q1.java. For testing, implement a main method that first prompts the user to enter
positive integer, second it displays the sum of its digits and third it displays its digital root.
Also test your methods using Junit tests from the provided file A5Q1Test.java. You will need to use
the Test menu button in DrJava instead of the Run button to execute the tests. You can do more testing
by yourself, but make sure that the tests from A5Q1Test.java (without modification) execute
(To do Junit testing, load your A5Q1.java solution and the provided A5Q1Test.java to Dr.Java.
Compile both files, and then press “Test” menu button in Dr.Java. A5Q1Test.java contains 5 tests.
Those tests for which your solution computes the correct answer will be displayed in green and those
for which your solution fails will be displayed in red. Make sure all the provided tests are displayed in
green i.e. that they pass).
Note: You can implement iterative versions of the two methods for yourself, but submit the recursive
versions only. Your recursive methods must not use loops.
Question 2: Objects
Part (a): In this question, you will create a class Rectangle that will store information about 2D
rectangles that a user is drawing on a computer screen. Place your solution in Rectangle.java file.
See the UML diagram for the class Rectangle for complete information about the class. Your
implementation of Rectangle class in Rectangle.java must match the given UML diagram.
(UML diagrams specify the attributes of a class and their types and the method headers that you must
use in your Java code, including the types of their parameters and the return types. + means public
and – means private. Something underlined should be static.)
Rectangle objects will store the following information:
The coordinates, x1 and y1, indicating the position of the lower left corner and the coordinates
x2 and y2 for the upper right corner. See the above figure for an example. (You may assume
that your program will be tested with values x2>=x1 and y2>=y1). Rectangle
– x1: int
– y1: int
– x2 : int
– x2 : int
– colour : String
+ Rectangle(x1: int, y1:int, x2:int, y2:int, colour : String)
+ getColour () : String
+ setColour( newColour : String)
+ getX1() : int
+ getY1() : int
+ getX2() : int
+ getY2() : int
+ move(x1:int , y1: int)
+ getArea() : int
+ getPerimeter() : int
+ contains(x: int, y:int) : boolean x1 x2
The colour of the rectangle, as a String such as “red”, “green”, “yellow”, etc. Use lowercase in
To create a Rectangle object, values should be supplied for the coordinates and for the colour.
Use the following constructor header:
public Rectangle(int x1, int y1, int x2, int y2, String colour)
Accessors and Modifiers:
Public accessor methods should be available for each coordinate and for the colour. A public modifier
method should be available for the colour. Use the following method headers:
public int getX1()returns the value of x1.
public int getY1()returns the value of y1.
public int getX2()returns the value of x2.
public int getY2()returns the value of y2.
public String getColour()returns the colour.
public void setColour (String newColour) changes the colour.
public void move(int x1, int y1)moves a rectangle so that the new position of the
lower left corner becomes x1, y1 while preserving it initial size.
public void print()prints the coordinates and the colour of the rectangle. Example of
The coordinates are (20,30) (60,70)
The colour is blue
public int getPerimeter()returns the perimeter of the rectangle.
public int getArea()returns the area of the rectangle.
public boolean contains(int x, int y)returns true if the point with coordinates x, y
is inside the rectangle and false otherwise. (A point on the boundary of the rectangle is
considered to be inside).
Test your Rectangle class using the JUnit class RectangleTest.java. Load
RectangleTest.java and your Rectangle.java into Dr.Java, compile and use the Test menu
button instead of the Run button. You can do more testing by yourself, but make sure that the tests
from RectangleTest.java (without modification) execute properly.
You can also test by using the provided file A5Q2.java, and running the main method. Make sure you
load that file before pressing Run (otherwise you will get the message there is no main method, since
the other files do not have and do not need a main method). In the file A5Q2.java, comment out the
last part until you implement part b of question 2. Make sure the output of the first part of A5Q2.java
is similar to the first part of the provided file A5Q2.txt.
Part (b): In this question, you will create a class Canvas that will store a collection of Rectangle
objects, and allow several operations on the collection. See the below UML diagram for the class
Canvas for all the information about the class (and for the return types of the methods). Your
implementation of Canvas class in Canvas.java must match the given UML diagram.
To model the collection, the class Canvas uses the following two attributes: a reference variable to
to an array of Rectangle objects, and a variable numRectangles that will be used to keep track of
how many rectangles were actually added.
Constructor: The constructor takes one parameter, the maximum number of Rectangles allowed in the
array. It should allocate memory for the specified number of Rectangle objects to be stored in the
array. However, no Rectangle objects are added at this time, so numRectangles should be
initialized with zero.
Methods: The method add(Rectangle aRectangle) will attempt to add the specified Rectangle
object to the Canvas. If there is space to hold another Rectangle object, the object should be added.
If the Canvas has no more room to store additional objects, an error message should be printed.
Sample error message:
The canvas is full. Unable to add a new rectangle.
The method getNumRectangles() returns the current number of rectangles in the array. It is an
The method printAll() prints the information about all the rectangles using the print method from
the class rectangles on each element in the array.
The method countRectanglesForColour(String colour) goes through the array and counts
how many rectangles have the specified colour.
The method totalPerimeter()returns the sum of the perimeter values of all the rectangles in the
The method intersect2(Rectangle r1, Rectangle r2) checks if the two given rectangles
intersect (overlap). It is a static method because it can be used independent of any object of type
– rectangles : Rectangle 
– numRectangles : int
+ Canvas (size : int )
+ add(aRectangle : Rectangle)
+ getNumRectangles() : int
+ countRectanglesForColour(colour: String): int
+ totalPerimeter() : int
+ intersect2( r1: Rectangle. r2:Rectangle) : boolean
+ intersectAll() : boolean
+ minEnclosingRectangle() : Rectangle
– max(a: int  ) : int
– min(a: int  ) : int
Canvas and it returns true if there is overlap and false otherwise. Definition: two rectangles intersect if
they have at least one point in common, otherwise they do not intersect.
The method intersectAll() returns true if there exists a point that intersects all rectangles. To test
this, it is enough to test if every pair of rectangles intersects (according to a Helly’s theorem
The method minEnclosingRectangle() calculates the minimum enclosing rectangle of all
rectangles in the canvas. It returns an object of type Rectangle, with the calculated coordinates and any
colour you prefer. To find minimum enclosing rectangle you will need to find the minimum x
coordinate of all rectangles, the maximum x coordinate for all rectangles, the minimum y coordinate
and the maximum y coordinate of all rectangles.
Use the private static methods max and min. The
former returns the maximum of an array of integers, and the latter the minimum. They are static
because they can be used independent of any object of type Canvas. They are private because they are
helper methods that should not be used outside the class.
Test your Canvas class using the class A5Q2.java. This should produce an output similar to that
produced by the last part of the provided file A5Q2.txt. Make sure that class A5Q2.java runs
without modification. Also do Junit testing using the provided test cases CanvasTest.java. You can
do more testing by yourself, but make sure that the tests from CanvasTest.java (without
modification) execute properly.