CMPT 145 Assignment 5 Node chains solution

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Question 0 (5 points):
Purpose: To force the use of Version Control in Assignment 5
Degree of Diculty: Easy
You are expected to practice using Version Control for Assignment 5. This is a tool that you need to be
required to use, even when you don’t need it, so that when you do need it, you are already familiar with it.
Do the following steps.
1. Create a new PyCharm project for Assignment 5.
2. Use Enable Version Control Integration… to initialize Git for your project.
3. Download the Python and text les provided for you with the Assignment, and add them to your
project.
4. Before you do any coding or start any other questions, make an initial commit.
5. As you work on each question, use Version Control frequently at various times when you have implemented an initial design, xed a bug, completed a question, or want to try something dierent. Make
your most professional attempt to use the software appropriately.
6. When you are nished your assignment, open the terminal in your Assignment 5 project folder, and
enter the command: git –no-pager log (double dash before the word ’no’). The easiest way to do
this is to use PyCharm, locate PyCharm’s Terminal panel at the bottom of the PyCharm window, and
type your command-line work there.
Note: You might have trouble with this if you are using Windows. Hopefully you are using the department’s network lesystem to store your les. If so, you can log into a non-Windows computer (Linux or
Mac) and do this. Just open a command-line, cd to your A3 folder, and run git –no-pager log there.
If you did all your work in this folder, git will be able to see it even if you did your work on Windows.
Git’s information is out of sight, but in your folder.
Note: If you are working at home onWindows, Google for how to make git available on your commandline window. You basically have to tell the command-line app where the git app is.
You may need to work in the lab for this; Git is installed there. Not having Git installed is not really an excuse.
It’s like driving a car without wearing a seatbelt. It’s not an excuse to say “My car doesn’t have a seatbelt.”
What to Hand In
After completing and submitting your work for Questions 1-3, open a command-line window in your Assignment 5 project folder. Run the following command in the terminal: git –no-pager log (double dash
before the word ’no’). Git will output the full contents of your interactions with Git in the console. Copy/-
paste this into a text le named a5-git.log.
If you are working on several dierent computers, you may copy/paste output from all of them, and submit
them as a single le. It’s not the way to use git, but it is the way students work on assignments.
Be sure to include your name, NSID, student number, course number and laboratory section at the top of
all documents.
Evaluation
• 5 marks: The log le shows that you used Git as part of your work for Assignment 5. For full marks,
your log le contains
– Meaningful commit messages.
– At least two commits per question for a total of at least 6 commits. And frankly, if you only have
6 commits, you’re pretending.
Page 2
IMPORTANT! Addendum on stepping through the node chain
Always make a copy of the reference stored in your node-chain variable, for example anchor, to another
variable, for example anode. We will use anode to step through the chain, one node at a time, using a
while loop without losing the reference of anchor which refers to the rst node in the chain. We must use
a while loop for our nodes, because Python has no idea how to step through our chain using a for-loop.
The condition for the while loop checks whether we’ve reached the end of the chain. There are no more
nodes to look at if the variable anode == None.
✞ ☎
anchor = node . create (2 , node . create (5))
anode = anchor
while anode != None :
print ( node . get_data ( anode ))
anode = node . get_next ( anode )
print ( anchor )
✝ ✆
Notice the last line especially. This is a key technique! anode = node.get_next(anode)replaces the reference
stored in anode with the reference stored in anode’s next eld. Visually, this is stepping from one node to
another by following the arrow out of the box labelled next that we saw in class.
It’s important to point out that we always use a temporary variable to step through a node-chain. If we
step through the node-chain by changing the anchor point, and we reach the end of the node-chain, we
have eectively unhooked the whole node-chain from the anchor. It’s really important to understand that
without any anchor point, we have no way to access the node-chain when we’re done, and it is absolutely,
totally, and in all other ways, unaccessible. Try to run the previous code using anode and the code bellow
without anode. You are going to see that anchor will be None in the second code and there is no way to
access the original node-chain anymore.
✞ ☎
anchor = node . create (2 , node . create (5))
while anchor != None :
print ( node . get_data ( anchor ))
anchor = node . get_next ( anchor )
print ( anchor )
✝ ✆
Page 3
CMPT 145
Principles of Computer Science
Question 1 (5 points):
Purpose: To practice debugging a function that works with node chains created using the Node ADT.
Degree of Diculty: Easy
On Moodle, you will nd a starter le called a5q1.py. It has a broken implementation of the function
to_string(), which is a function used by the rest of the assignment.
You will also nd a test script named a5q1_testing.py. It has a bunch of test cases pre-written for you.
Read it carefully!
Debug and x the function to_string(). The error in the function is pretty typical of novice errors with this
kind of programming task.
The interface for the function is:
✞ ☎
def to_string ( node_chain ):
“””
Purpose :
Create a string representation of the node chain . E.g. ,
[ 1 | * -] – – >[ 2 | * -] – – >[ 3 | / ]
Pre – conditions :
: param node_chain : A node -chain , possibly empty
Post_conditions :
None
Return : A string representation of the nodes .
“””
✝ ✆
Note carefully that the function does not do any console output. It should return a string that represents
the node chain.
Here’s how it might be used:
✞ ☎
empty_chain = None
chain = node . create (1 , node . create (2 , node . create (3)))
print (’ empty_chain —>’, to_string ( empty_chain ))
print (’chain ———>’, to_string ( chain ))
✝ ✆
Here’s what the above code is supposed to do when the function is working:
✞ ☎
empty_chain —> EMPTY
chain ———> [ 1 | * -] – – >[ 2 | * -] – – >[ 3 | / ]
✝ ✆
Notice that the string makes use of the characters ’[ | *-]–>’ to reect the chain of references. The
function also uses the character ’/’ to abbreviate the value None that indicates the end of a chain. Note
especially that the empty chain is represented by the string ’EMPTY’.
What to Hand In
A le named a5q1.py with the corrected denition of the function. Be sure to include your name, NSID,
student number, course number and laboratory section at the top of all documents.
Evaluation
• 5 marks: The function to_string() works correctly
Page 4
Department of Computer Science
176 Thorvaldson Building
110 Science Place, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5C9, Canada
Telephine: (306) 966-4886, Facimile: (306) 966-4884
CMPT 145
Summer-Spring 2019
Principles of Computer Science
Question 2 (20 points):
Purpose: To practice working with node chains created using the Node ADT.
Degree of Diculty: Easy.
In this question you’ll write three functions for node-chains that are a little more challenging. On Moodle,
you can nd a starter le called a5q2.py, with all the functions and doc-strings in place, and your job is to
write the bodies of the functions. You will also nd a test script named a5q2_testing.py. It has a bunch of
test cases pre-written for you. Read it carefully!
(a) (5 points) Implement the function count_chain(). The interface for the function is:
✞ ☎
def count_chain ( node_chain ):
“””
Purpose :
Counts the number of nodes in the node chain .
Pre – conditions :
: param node_chain : a node chain , possibly empty
Return :
: return : The number of nodes in the node chain .
“””
✝ ✆
Note carefully that the function is not to do any console output.
A demonstration of the application of the function is as follows:
✞ ☎
empty_chain = None
chain = node . create (1 , node . create (2 , node . create (3)))
print (’empty chain has ’, count_chain ( empty_chain ) , ’elements ’)
print (’chain has ’, count_chain ( chain ) , ’elements ’)
✝ ✆
The output from the demonstration is as follows:
✞ ☎
empty chain has 0 elements
chain has 3 elements
✝ ✆
Page 5
Department of Computer Science
176 Thorvaldson Building
110 Science Place, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5C9, Canada
Telephine: (306) 966-4886, Facimile: (306) 966-4884
CMPT 145
Summer-Spring 2019
Principles of Computer Science
(b) (5 points) Implement the function delete_front_nodes(). The interface for the function is:
✞ ☎
def delete_front_nodes ( node_chain , n ):
“””
Purpose :
Deletes the first n nodes from the front of the node chain .
Pre – Conditions :
: param node_chain : a node -chain , possibly empty
: param n: integer , how many nodes that should be removed off
the front of the node chain
Post – conditions :
The node – chain is changed , by removing the first n nodes .
If n> length of node_chain , node_chain is set to be empty ( None )
Return :
: return : The resulting node chain , which may now be empty ( None )
“””
✝ ✆
A demonstration of the application of the function is as follows:
✞ ☎
chain = node . create (1 , node . create (2 , node . create (3)))
smaller_chain = delete_front_nodes ( chain , 2)
print (” before :”, to_string ( chain ))
print (” after :”, to_string ( smaller_chain ))
✝ ✆
The output from the demonstration is as follows:
✞ ☎
before : [ 1 | * -] – – >[ 2 | * -] – – >[ 3 | / ]
after : [ 3 | / ]
✝ ✆
We can see that the rst two nodes were deleted from the chain.
Page 6
Department of Computer Science
176 Thorvaldson Building
110 Science Place, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5C9, Canada
Telephine: (306) 966-4886, Facimile: (306) 966-4884
CMPT 145
Summer-Spring 2019
Principles of Computer Science
(c) (5 points) Implement the function replace_last(). The interface for the function is:
✞ ☎
def replace_last ( node_chain , target_val , replacement_val ):
“””
Purpose :
Replaces the last occurrence of target data value with the
new_value . The chain should at most have 1 data value changed .
Pre – conditions :
: param node_chain : a node chain , possibly None
: param target_val : the target data value we are searching to
replace the last instance of
: param replacement_val : the data value to replace the
target_val that we found
Post – conditions :
The node – chain is changed , by replacing the last occurrence of
target_val . If target_val is not present , then the node_chain
returns unaltered .
Return :
: return : The altered node chain where any data occurrences of
target_val has been replaced with replacement_val .
“””
✝ ✆
This function aects the data values stored in the node-chain, but should not change any of the nodes
in the chain. If the target does not appear in the node-chain, the node-chain is not modied at all.
A demonstration of the application of the function is as follows:
✞ ☎
chain = node . create (1 ,
node . create (2 ,
node . create (3 ,
node . create (2 ,
node . create (5)))))
print (’before :’, to_string ( chain ))
altered_chain = replace_last ( chain , 2 , 4)
print (’after :’, to_string ( altered_chain ))
✝ ✆
The output from the demonstration is as follows:
✞ ☎
before : [ 1 | * -] – – >[ 2 | * -] – – >[ 3 | * -] – – >[ 2 | * -] – – >[ 5 | / ]
after : [ 1 | * -] – – >[ 2 | * -] – – >[ 3 | * -] – – >[ 4 | * -] – – >[ 5 | / ]
✝ ✆
Page 7
Department of Computer Science
176 Thorvaldson Building
110 Science Place, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5C9, Canada
Telephine: (306) 966-4886, Facimile: (306) 966-4884
CMPT 145
Summer-Spring 2019
Principles of Computer Science
(d) (5 points) Before you submit your work, review it, and edit it for programming style. Make sure your
variables are named well, and that you have appropriate (not excessive) internal documentation (do
not change the doc-string, which we have given you).
What to Hand In
A le named a5q2.py with the denitions of the three functions. Be sure to include your name, NSID, student
number, course number and laboratory section at the top of all documents.
Evaluation
• 5 marks: Your function count_chain():
– Does not violate the Node ADT.
– Uses the Node ADT to return the number of nodes in the chain correctly.
– Works on node-chains of any length.
• 5 marks: Your function delete_front_nodes():
– Does not violate the Node ADT.
– Uses the Node ADT to delete the front n nodes, which may result in an empty node-chain.
– Works on node-chains of any length.
• 5 marks: Your function replace_last():
– Does not violate the Node ADT.
– Uses the Node ADT to replace the last target value appropriately, while leaving the node-chain
intact.
– Works on node-chains of any length.
• 5 marks: Overall, you used good programming style, including:
– Good variable names
– Appropriate internal comments (outside of the given doc-strings)
Page 8
Department of Computer Science
176 Thorvaldson Building
110 Science Place, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5C9, Canada
Telephine: (306) 966-4886, Facimile: (306) 966-4884
CMPT 145
Summer-Spring 2019
Principles of Computer Science
Question 3 (20 points):
Purpose: To practice working with node chains created using the Node ADT to implement slightly harder
functionality.
Degree of Diculty: Moderate to Tricky.
In this question you’ll write some functions for node-chains that are even more challenging. On Moodle,
you can nd a starter le called a5q3.py, with all the functions and doc-strings in place, and your job is to
write the bodies of the functions. You will also nd a test script named a5q3_testing.py. It has a bunch of
test cases pre-written for you. Read it carefully!
(a) (5 points) Implement the function contains_duplicates(). The interface for the function is:
✞ ☎
def contains_duplicates ( node_chain ):
“””
Purpose :
Returns whether or not the given node_chain contains one
or more duplicate data values .
Pre – conditions :
: param node_chain : a node -chain , possibly empty
Return :
: return : True if duplicate data value (s) were found ,
False otherwise
“””
✝ ✆
For this question, you are allowed to use a List to store data values we’ve seen while iterating through
the chain. We should simply return True if we nd ANY duplicate values, or False otherwise.
A demonstration of the application of the function is as follows:
✞ ☎
chain = node . create (1 ,
node . create (2 ,
node . create (3 ,
node . create (4 ,
node . create (5)))))
print (’Duplicates ?’, contains_duplicates ( chain ))
altered_chain = replace_last ( chain , 5 , 1)
print (’Duplicates ?’, contains_duplicates ( altered_chain ))
✝ ✆
The output from the demonstration is as follows:
✞ ☎
Duplicates ? False
Duplicates ? True
✝ ✆
Page 9
Department of Computer Science
176 Thorvaldson Building
110 Science Place, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5C9, Canada
Telephine: (306) 966-4886, Facimile: (306) 966-4884
CMPT 145
Summer-Spring 2019
Principles of Computer Science
(b) (5 points) Implement the function reverse_chain(). The interface for the function is:
✞ ☎
def reverse_chain ( node_chain ):
“””
Purpose :
Completely reverses the order of the given node_chain .
Pre – conditions :
: param node_chain : a node chain , possibly empty
Post – conditions :
The front of the node_chain is altered to be the back ,
with all nodes now pointing next the opposite direction .
Return :
: return : The node chain with its order reversed
“””
✝ ✆
Note that the function should return the original node-chain if the node chain is of size 1 or 0.
A demonstration of the application of the function is as follows:
✞ ☎
chain = node . create (1 , node . create (’two ’, node . create (3)))
print (’before :’, to_string ( chain ))
reversed_chain = reverse_chain ( chain )
print (’after :’, to_string ( reversed_chain ))
✝ ✆
The output from the demonstration is as follows:
✞ ☎
before : [ 1 | * -] – – >[ two | * -] – – >[ 3 | / ]
after : [ 3 | * -] – – >[ two | * -] – – >[ 1 | / ]
✝ ✆
Page 10
(c) (5 points) Implement the function insert_value_sorted(). The interface for the function is:
✞ ☎
def insert_value_sorted ( node_chain , number_value ):
“””
Purpose :
Insert the given number_value into the node – chain so that
it is inserted into proper ascending order .
Pre – conditions :
: param node_chain : a node -chain , possibly empty ,
containing only numbers
: param number_value : a numerical value to be inserted
Assumption : node_chain only contains numbers ,
and is already in ascending order
Post – condition :
The node – chain is modified to include a new node in
the proper spot to make the node_chain be in ascending order
Return
: return : the node – chain with the new value in it.
Ex: Insert 3 into : 1 – >2 – >5. Becomes 1 – >2 – > – >3 – >5
“””
✝ ✆
This one is tricky, as there are a few specials cases: inserting at the front of the chain, the back, and
the middle.
A demonstration of the application of the function is as follows:
✞ ☎
chain = node . create (1 , node . create (2 , node . create (4 , node . create (5))))
print (’before :’, to_string ( chain ))
chain = insert_value_sorted ( chain , 3)
print (’after :’, to_string ( chain ))
✝ ✆
The output from the demonstration is as follows:
✞ ☎
before : [ 1 | * -] – – >[ 2 | * -] – – >[ 4 | * -] – – >[ 5 | / ]
after : [ 1 | * -] – – >[ 2 | * -] – – >[ 3 | * -] – – >[ 4 | * -] – – >[ 5 | / ]
✝ ✆
Page 11
(d) (5 points) Before you submit your work, review it, and edit it for programming style. Make sure your
variables are named well, and that you have appropriate (not excessive) internal documentation (do
not change the doc-string, which we have given you).
What to Hand In
A le named a5q3.py with the denition of your functions. Be sure to include your name, NSID, student
number, course number and laboratory section at the top of all documents.
Evaluation
• 5 marks: Your function contains_duplicates():
– Does not violate the Node ADT.
– Uses the Node ADT (and maybe a list) to check if the node-chain contains any duplicate data
values.
– Works on node-chains of any length.
• 5 marks: Your function reverse_chain():
– Does not violate the Node ADT.
– Uses the Node ADT to completely reverse the order of a given node-chain.
– Works on node-chains of any length.
• 5 marks: Your function insert_value_sorted():
– Does not violate the Node ADT.
– Uses the Node ADT to insert a new node with the given value so that the node-chain remains
sorted in ascending order (node-chain only contains numbers).
– Works on node-chains of any length.
• 5 marks: Overall, you used good programming style, including:
– Good variable names
– Appropriate internal comments (outside of the given doc-strings)
Page 12