In this assignment, you will implement a binary tree data structure in two languages: one in
Haskell, and one in an imperative language (C, C++, Java, or C#).
The portion of your solution in Haskell should be defined within a module named Tree, and
you should submit the file Tree.hs (or Tree.lhs). File names are case sensitive. The
portion of your solution in C/Java should be defined within a file named Tree.* or tree.*
where * is the appropriate extension. Verbal responses to non-programming questions should
be in the form of comments in your code.
Note: The solution to each part of the Haskell problems is meant to be extremely short
(one to four lines). You may (and should) use functions from earlier problems to solve parts
of later problems. Unless otherwise specified, your solutions may utilize functions from the
standard prelude as well as material from the lecture notes and textbook.
Problem 1. (20 pts)
(a) Define a polymorphic data type called Tree a that has two constructors: Leaf ::
Tree a and Node :: a -> Tree a -> Tree a -> Tree a. Trees of this type will
contain a single piece of data of type a at each node, and no data at their leaves.
(b) Modify your data type definition so that the show and (==) functions are both defined
(c) Define a function mapT :: (a -> b) -> Tree a -> Tree b that operates on trees
the same way that map operates on lists. In other words, mapT should take a function
and apply it to every data item of type a within a tree of type Tree a.
(d) Define a function foldT :: (a -> b -> b -> b) -> b -> Tree a -> b that operates on trees the same way that foldr operates on lists. In other words, the base item
of type b should replace the leaf constructor in the tree, and the function of type a ->
b -> b -> b should replace the node constructor in the tree.
1Hint: This should be done as part of the original data expression by adding a deriving clause, consult
[HCFP, Ch. 14, 16].
Problem 2. (20 pts)
(a) Define a function leafCount :: Tree a -> Integer that returns an integer representing the total number of leaves in a tree. To get full credit, you must use foldT and
may define at most one helper function.
(b) Define a function nodeCount :: Tree a -> Integer that returns an integer representing the total number of non-leaf nodes in a tree. To get full credit, you must use
foldT and may define at most one helper function.
(c) Define a function height :: Tree a -> Integer that returns an integer representing
the height of the tree. Trees consisting of only a leaf have height 0. To get full credit,
you must use foldT and may define at most one helper function.
Problem 3. (30 pts)
(a) A tree is perfect if all the leaves of the tree are at the same depth. Define a function
perfect :: Tree a -> Bool that returns True if the tree supplied is perfect and
False otherwise. You may use any approach to implement this function.
(b) A tree is a degenerate if all the nodes are arranged in a single path. Equivalently, a tree
is degenerate if all nodes have at least one leaf child. Define a function degenerate ::
Tree a -> Bool that returns True if and only if the tree supplied is degenerate.2
(c) Define a function list :: Tree a -> Maybe [a]. If the supplied tree is degenerate
the function should return Just l, where l corresponds to a list constructed by replacing the Node constructors with (:) constructors and the Leaf constructors have been
replaced with the  constructor where appropriate. If the supplied tree is not degenerate, the function should return Nothing. You are encouraged to use degenerate and
foldT to implement this function.3
Problem 4. (30 pts)
(a) Implement in an imperative language a data structure definition similar to Tree a.
(b) Add functions or members to the data structure definition corresponding to the functions (==), leafCount, nodeCount, height, perfect, degenerate, and list (the last
function can return an array or other list-like data structure instance if possible, and
null or something equivalent otherwise). You may use any approach to implement
(c) Identify two advantages of higher-order functions (such as foldT) within the context
of processing tree data structures.
2Hint: You do not need to make your function recursive if you use functions you have already defined.
How many leaves does a degenerate tree have? How many nodes?
3Hint: Do not make your use of foldT more complicated than necessary. Do you need to check that the
tree is degenerate more than once? Use your nodeCount implementation as a guide.
Problem 5. (
∗15 extra credit pts)
(a) In your Tree module, define a new data type called Color that has four constructors:
Red::Color, Green::Color, Blue::Color, and Yellow::Color.
(b) Define a value infColorTree :: Tree Color, an infinite tree in which every node
has a color, and the three neighbors of that node (the parent and its two children) have
three distinct colors which are different from the color of the node. (That is, for every
node 푣, the two children of that node must have different colors from each other as well
as from 푣, and the parent of 푣 must not share a color with either of the two children of
푣, nor with 푣 itself).