Assignment Standard encoding schemes like ASCII are convenient and relatively efficient. However we often need to use data compression methods to store data as efficiently as possible. I have a large collection of raw text files of famous literature, including Leo Tolstoy’s War and Peace consisting of over 3 million characters, and I’d like to store these works more efficiently. David Huffman developed a very efficient method for compressing data based on character frequency in a message. In this assignment you will implement Huffman’s coding algorithm in a CodingTree class. This class will carry out all stages of Huffman’s encoding algorithm: ● counting the frequency of characters in a text file. ● creating one tree for each character with a nonzero count. ○ the tree has one node in it and a weight equal to the character’s count. ● repeating the following step until there is only a single tree: ○ merge the two trees with minimum weight into a single tree with weight equal to the sum of the two tree weights by creating a new root and adding the two trees as left and right subtrees. ● labelling the single tree’s left branches with a 0 and right branches with a 1 and reading the code for the characters stored in leaf nodes from the path from root to leaf. ● using the code for each character to create a compressed encoding of the message. ● (Optional)provide a method to decode the compressed message. You are also responsible for implementing a Main controller that uses the CodingTree class to compress a file. The main must: ● Read the contents of a text file into a String. ● Pass the String into the CodingTree in order to initiate Huffman’s encoding procedure and generate a map of codes. ● Output the codes to a text file. ● Output the compressed message to a binary file. ● Display compression and run time statistics. Formal Specifications You are responsible for implementing the CodingTree class that must function according to the following interface: ● void CodingTree(String message) a constructor that takes the text of a message to be compressed. The constructor is responsible for calling all private methods that carry out the Huffman coding algorithm. ● Map<Character, String> codes a data member that is a map of characters in the message to binary codes (Strings of ‘1’s and ‘0’s) created by your tree. ● String or List bits a data member that is the message encoded using the Huffman codes. ● (Optional)String decode(String bits, Map<Character, String> codes) this method will take the output of Huffman’s encoding and produce the original text. To implement your CodingTree all other design choices are left to you. It is strongly encouraged that you use additional classes and methods and try to use the proper built in data structures whenever possible. For example, in my sample solution I make use of a private method to count the frequency of each character, a private node class to implement my tree, a recursive function to read the codes out of the finished tree, and a priority queue to handle selecting the minimum weight tree. You will also create a Main class that is capable of compressing a number of files and includes methods used to test components of your program. ● void main(String args) this method will carry out compression of a file using the CodingTree class. ○ Read in from a textfile. You may hardcode the filename into your program but make sure you test with more than one file. ○ Output to two files. Again feel free to hardcode the names of these files into your program. These are the codes text file and the compressed binary file. ○ Display statistics. You must output the original size (in kilobytes), the compressed size (in kilobytes), the compression ratio (as a percentage) and the elapsed time for compression. ● void testCodingTree() this method tests the coding tree on a short simple phrase so you can verify its correctness. ● Test files include at least one test file that is a piece of literature of considerable size. ○ Check out Project Gutenberg an online database of literature in text format. (Optional)Implement your own MyPriorityQueue class using an array or ArrayList based implementation. Use it in place of the Java PriorityQueue in your CodingTree class. ● Your MyPriorityQueue should implement all methods needed to support the Huffman algorithm. ● These methods should match the interface of of the Java PriorityQueue. Submission The following files are provided for you: ● WarAndPeace.txt the plain text of Leo Tolstoy’s novel War and Peace. ● codes.txt An appropriate set of codes produced by my sample solution. (Note: This is not a unique solution. Other proper encodings do exist.) ● compressed.txt The compressed text of the novel. It’s size is the most relevant feature. You will submit a .zip file containing: ● Main.java the simulation controller. ● CodingTree.java the completed and functional data structure. ● .txt a novel or work of art in pure text for that you have tested your program on. ● (Optional)MyPriorityQueue.java an array based implementation of PriorityQueue. Grading Rubric This assignment is graded out of 25 points but there are 36 points available. Correctness 20 points ● To get all 20 points you must compress “War and Peace” to within 1 kilobyte of 1832 kilobytes in less than three seconds. ● Solutions that compress “War and Peace” to within more than 1 kilobyte of 1832 kilobytes but less than 10 kilobytes of 1832 kilobytes are deducted 5 points. ● Solutions that compress “War and Peace” to within more than 10 kilobytes of 1832 kilobytes but less than 100 kilobytes of 1832 kilobytes are deducted 10 points. ● Solutions that compress “War and Peace” to within more than 100 kilobytes of 1832 kilobytes are deducted 15 points. ● Solutions that take longer than three seconds but less than 10 seconds will be deducted 3 points. ● Solutions that take longer than 10 seconds will be deducted 10 points. ● A 0 will be awarded if your solution does not produce a compressed file. ● One point is deducted if you do not output the original size of the file. ● One point is deducted if you do not output the new size of the file. ● One point is deducted if you do not output the runtime of your program. Interface 3 points ● All CodingTree methods and properties match the interface provided above. One point is deducted for each mismatch. Testing 2 points ● One point is deducted if there is not an adequate testCodingTree() method. ● One point is deducted if there is not an additional test file submitted with the solution. Miscellaneous 4 points ● All four points are awarded automatically with the following exceptions. ● One point is deducted if you work in a team of two. ● One point is deducted if your submission is late. ● One point is deducted if you resubmit after your assignment is graded. ● One point is deducted if your submission is not in the correct format (i.e. not in a ZIP, you submit .class files instead of .java, you submit code that needs to be altered to work, etc.) (Optional) Decoding 4 points ● A properly decoded file is identical to the original. ● Up to four points are deducted for errors in the decoding process. ● Two points are deducted if the decoding process does not read in the compressed files but instead uses variables stored in memory after encoding. (Optional) Priority Queue 3 points ● All three points are awarded if the MyPriorityQueue class is implemented using the array or ArrayList based implementation and if the methods match the interface for the Java PriorityQueue. ● Points are deducted for mismatches in method definitions. Tips for maximizing your grade: ● Make sure your classes match the interface structure exactly. I will use my own controller (Main.java) and test files on your code and it should work without changes. Do not change the method name (even capitalization), return type, argument number, type, and order. Make sure all parts of the interface are implemented. ● Only zip up the .java files. If you use eclipse these are found in the “src” directory, not the “bin” directory. I can do nothing with the .class files. ● All program components should be in the default package. If you use a different package it increases the difficulty of grading and thus affects your grade. ● Place your name in the comments at the top of every file. If you are a group of two make sure both names appear clearly in these comments.